Friday, May 22, 2020
Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s 1892 short story Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¹The Yellow Wallpaper,Ã¢â¬ tells the tale of an unnamed woman slipping slowly deeper into a state of hysteria. A husband takes his wife away from society and isolates her in a rented house on a small island in order to cure her Ã¢â¬Å"nerves.Ã¢â¬ He leaves her alone, more often than not, except for her prescribed medication, while seeing to his own patients.Ã¢â¬â¹ The mental breakdown that she eventually experiences, likely triggered by postpartum depression, is supported by various outside factors which present themselves over time. It is probable that, had doctors been more knowledgeable of the illness at the time, the main character would have been successfully treated and sent on her way. However, due in large part to the influences of other characters, her depression develops into something much deeper and darker. A type of chasm forms in her mind, and we witness as the real world and a fantasy world merge. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a superb description of the misunderstanding of postpartum depression before the 1900s but can also act in the context of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. At the time this short story was written, Gilman was aware of the lack of understanding surrounding postpartum depression. She created a character that would shine a light on the issue, particularly for men and doctors who claimed to know more than they actually did. Gilman humorously hints at this idea in the opening of the story when she writes, Ã¢â¬Å"John is a physician and perhaps that is one reason I do not get well faster.Ã¢â¬ Some readers may interpret that statement as something a wife would say to poke fun at her know-it-all husband, but the fact remains that many doctors were doing more harm than good when it came to treating (postpartum) depression. Increasing the danger and difficulty is the fact that she, like many women in America at the time, was absolutely under the control of her husband: He said I was his darling and his comfort and all he had, and that I must take care of myself for his sake, and keep well. He says no one but me can help myself out of it, that I must use my will and self-control and not let any silly fancies run away with me. We see by this example alone that her state of mind is dependent upon the needs of her husband. She believes that it is entirely up to her to fix what is wrong with her, for the good of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s sanity and health. There is no desire for her to get well on her own, for her own sake. Further on in the story, when our character begins to lose sanity, she makes the claim that her husband Ã¢â¬Å"pretended to be very loving and kind. As if I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see through him.Ã¢â¬ It is only as she loses her grip on reality that she realizes her husband has not been caring for her properly. Although depression has become more understood in the past half-century or so, GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ has not become obsolete. The story can speak to us, in the same way, today about other concepts related to health, psychology, or identity that many people do not fully understand. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a story about a woman, about all women, who suffer from postpartum depression and become isolated or misunderstood. These women were made to feel as if there was something wrong with them, something shameful that had to be hidden away and fixed before they could return to society. Gilman suggests that no one has all the answers; we must trust ourselves and seek help in more than one place, and we should value the roles we can play, of friend or lover, while allowing professionals, like doctors and counselors, to do their jobs. GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a bold statement about humanity. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s shouting for us to tear down the paper that separates us from each other, from ourselves, so that we may help without inflicting more pain: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got out at last, in spite of you and Jane. And IÃ¢â¬â¢ve pulled off most of the paper, so you canÃ¢â¬â¢t put me back.Ã¢â¬
Friday, May 8, 2020
Drug abuse is the consumption of any natural or synthetic substance or drug in an unapproved quantity for increased performance and enhancement. Most people abuse drugs because they want to gain the psychological effect with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals. (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.) Drug Addiction is when drug abuse becomes a compulsion for maintaining psychological and emotional balance. Drugs decompose the basic structure of a whole society, by weakening families, reducing human productivity, corrupting governments, and demolding law respecting citizens. (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.) According to Med India, Ã¢â¬Å"The trafficking of illicit drugs and hallucinogens is the largest illegal business in the world accounting for about 8% of international trade, amounting to about $400 billion annuallyÃ¢â¬ (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.). Drugs decompose a whole society Psychological Effects of Drug Abuse Stress: Many people use drugs because they feel as if it would make them relax and forget about all their issues that stress them up. However, it is the opposite. Once the euphoric feeling they get from the drug is over, they go back to being stressed and depressed. Long-term use of drugs can cause a deep impact on the way oneÃ¢â¬â¢s brain works, and that can lead to augmented anxiety and stress. (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.) Anxiety and Depression: Anxiety is when one feels worried or nervous about an event that has happenedShow MoreRelatedIntroduction . Cannabis Is The Most Commonly Used Illegal1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescommonly used illegal drug that is used world wide with an estimation of 125-203 million users in 2009 (Degenhardt Hall 2012). Cannabis misuse causes adverse effects and leads to addiction if consumed continuously ( ). 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Summary Response:Read MoreNegative Impact Of Postpartum Depression1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageson Child Abuse Introduction: This psychological and behavioral study will analyze the impact of postpartum depression on women and the problem of child abuse related to this condition. Case studies find the circumstances of postpartum depression in women is directly related to the issue of previous child abuse and PTSD that have a negative impact on the newborn child. These factors define a significant correlation with postpartum depression in 1 out 9 women and later problems of abuse between motherRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Its Effects On The United States1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe 19th century is when the active substances in drugs were found. Many of these substances were given over the counter and weren t regulated, which meant that people could easily obtain substances such as morphine, cocaine, landuam, and many others. During the early 1900s, an estimate of about 250,000 people were abusing a substance within the United States. Substance abuse is a serious problem which can affect one s physical an d psychological capabilities, their relationships, and also theirRead MoreDrug Profile Paper1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDrug Profile Paper University of Phoenix PSY/425 March 22th, 2012 Drug Profile Paper This paper will illustrate several aspects of how drugs affect our lives. Addiction philosophies including the psychology and physiology will be explained in an attempt to describe how drugs affect our bodies both physically and mentally. Secondly, different drug categories types will be covered including: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and cannabis. Each of these categories has differentRead MoreSubstance Abuse: Crisis Intervention1352 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSubstance abuse: Crisis intervention To the outsider, the lives of substance abusers often look like a series of crises waiting to happen. Often, the extent to which substance abuse is causing devastation in the life of the sufferer is more manifest to outsiders such as friends or relatives than the abuser him or herself. Crises relating to substance abuse may be biologically-related (such as a medical crisis brought about by abuse); legally related (a conviction for abusing an illegal drug, drug-dealingRead MorePsychological Impact On Substance Abuse Prevention1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPsychological Impact According to Federal Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, women are the fastest-growing segment for substance abuse in the United States. About 2.7 million women in the United States abuse drugs or alcohol. Women typically enter rehab sooner than men, but they have more psychological distress, and are more likely to suffer from a mood or anxiety disorder (Liff, 2012). Most research on gender-based differences in addiction treatment has focused on organizational issues (suchRead MoreDrug Addiction- Physical vs. Psychological1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProfessor Taylor Drugs and Drug Policy 28 April 2011 Drug AddictionÃ¢â¬âPhysical vs. Psychological Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Research shows that an individual progresses from using drugs/substances, to being addicted to a drug/substance. This relationship with drugs (either legal or illegal) is complex because specific patterns of progression vary greatly from person to person. The causes of drug/substance use seem to be mainly due to external/social influences, for example peer pressure and abuse/addictionÃ¢â¬âdependenceRead MoreDrugs And Psychoactive Drugs925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychoactive drugs are chemicals that affect the nervous system. When a psychoactive drug is taken it can cause changes in mood, emotions, feelings and thoughts. These drugs can also change how a person perceives things and can alter the consciousness of that person (Plotnik Kouyoumdijian, 2014). Psychoactive drugs can be illicit or licit, illegal or legal. Both licit and illicit psychoactive drugs can cause affect a person. Some examples of licit psychoactive drugs are coffee, alcohol, and tobacco
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Athletes of the modern sports are pushing their body to the limits, not only through rigid practice and training, new techniques and strategies but also by enhancing or altering the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s physiological make up.Ã Admittedly, the use of drugs in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s sport is widespread.Ã Statistics show that athletes even the amateur ones as young as 12 years old are already taking steroids or drugs to enhance their performance in their respective fields. We will write a custom essay sample on Professional Athletes and Illegal Steroid Use or any similar topic only for you Order Now In a survey conducted by the NCAA in 2004, it was reported that among 19-22 year-olds, 18.9% of them responded that they knew friends within the same age bracket who are taking steroids and who are playing a sport and 3% of high school seniors are using steroids as performance enhancers, how much more for the professional athletes who have a lot more at stake than just name, reputation, medal and trophy. So what are steroids and why has it raised so many clamors, not only among the field of sports but also among the field of science?Ã If an athlete takes steroids, would it be tantamount to cheating as he is not utilizing his own bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities but that of a drug?Ã Ã Drugs commonly referred to as steroids are classified as anabolic, androgenic, and corticosteroids.Ã Corticosteroids are used to control inflammation.Ã Anabolic steroids which have been the object of media attention are the kind of drugs which is used by athletes and body builders to improve and bulk up their profile and bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s physiology. Anabolic is a Greek word which means to Ã¢â¬Å"build upÃ¢â¬ and these are synthetic hormones that cause the body to produce more muscle at the same time preventing muscle break down.Ã Ã In the United States, it is illegal to take anabolic steroids without prescription from a doctor.Ã Androgenics or androstenedione (andros) is a lesser or weake r kind of anabolic steroid.Ã It primarily works by increasing testosterone and muscle proteins and many of weigh lifters take this steroid. The Benefits of Steroids The human body produces steroids naturally.Ã In the case of anabolic steroids, they resemble the chemical structure of the male sex hormone testosterone.Ã It facilitates the development of the male secondary sexual characteristics as well as facilitating muscle growth.Ã [Hobart, Sarah]. But just like any other development in science, steroids were not developed in order to enhance an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities.Ã Rather it was developed in the 1930s in order to treat hypogonadism.Ã People with such disorder do not produce enough testosterone and the use of steroid helps replace the much needed testosterone.Ã Such success caught up with the athletes.Ã In 1956 Olympics, Russian athletes who used steroids were observed to be using catheters when urinating.Ã Ironically, the athletes had trouble urinating because their prostates have enlarged because of the excessive use of the drug. Subsequent observations and studies have manifested the benefits of the use of steroids by professional athletes.Ã Weight lifters who used steroids were seen to have increased their muscle strength and muscle growth. In comparison to those weight lifters who used steroids, those who took placebo or did not take anything at all showed a very slow increase in muscle growth and strength.Ã Steroids not only enhance the athletic performance of athletes, it also provide for the development of a physically fit, tighter and toner body not only for men but also for women. The Risks and Effects Just like any other drug, steroids have also its share of risks and side effects.Ã One of the particular concerns of health officials over steroid use for a prolonged period is liver damage, increased risk in heart disease.Ã The side effects of the steroid use are also severe.Ã For men who use steroids, they tend to develop Ã¢â¬Å"breastsÃ¢â¬ or gynecomastia, painful prolonged erection (priapism) and edema due to water and sodium retention.Ã In the case of the Russian athletes in 1956, they had trouble urinating due to the enlargement of their prostates.Ã Ã Cardiovascular problems also occur due to the increase of Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ cholesterol or the low-density lipoprotein levels instead of enhancing the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ cholesterol or the high-density lipoprotein levels.Ã With these harmful physical effects, psychological problems also come up.Ã There was an indication that man who takes steroids showed behavioral changes like being aggressive. On the other hand, women who use steroids suffer irreversible damages unlike the men who can correct what ever side effect they have after discontinuing the use of such drug.Ã Women develop facial hair growth, enlarged clitoris, and coarser skin.Ã They also increase the same cardiovascular problems like the men do.Ã Women also are at risk of infertility and other reproductive disorders.Ã Admittedly, professional athletes both men and women still continue to use illegal steroids disregarding the risks even death because of their desire to win. Ethics The debate of the use of steroids is not only limited to the health concerns.Ã Rather, the use of steroids by professional athletes is centered on ethics. One argument over steroid use by professional athletes is that it is a form of cheating.Ã When using steroids as performance enhancing drugs, they tend to depend on the drugs capability instead of their own.Ã Athletes using performance-enhancers seek to increase their athletic ability via drugs rather than through the training process, which requires true commitment and effort on the part of the athlete (Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids: Play Safe,Ã¢â¬ 2004). The athletes who are the center and the heart of the game use steroids to win or better their chances in winning, they gave into the power of the drugs over them instead of wielding and showcasing their strengths.Ã This is ultimately being unfair to other athletes and professional players who only depend on their prowess, not of the drugs.Ã And since professional athletes play to win, as they are paid to do so, those who do not use steroids are extremely pressured to use them too in order to compete with the other athletes who have exceedingly enhanced performance. Another point raised on the ethical perspective of the use of steroid is that such use of a performance-enhancing drug allows professional athletes to tap into their undiscovered potentials. Although as discussed above, the athletes are the hearts of the game and they should be the one controlling it, not some drug, still with the aid of the drug, they are only harnessing their potentials to full use.Ã The privacy and the rights of the athletes to do to his body whatever he thinks is beneficial to him must be respected. Providing a stricter regulation on the use of steroid among professional athletes will not solve the problem. The decision to use or not to use such drug must be left to the discretion of the athlete.Ã The use of steroids among professional athletes may ultimately have been the result of Ã¢â¬Å"media hypeÃ¢â¬ , and the ban on the use of such has been based on moral panic. By the making the use of steroids criminal, through drug testing may be even the cause of more health risks for the athletes.Ã As it is impossible to acquire the drug through a doctor, they instead turn to the underground or black market.Ã Instead of providing adequate help to the athletes who may limit or control the use of such drugs, banning it is ultimately forcing them to continue using steroids thereby driving them to further health risks in the first place. Athletes especially the professional ones are the role models of society especially the youth.Ã They have been looked up to by the society as pillars that are looked up to.Ã While each individual have the rights to do what he thinks is best for his own self, the state or the government can still impose regulations among its citizens especially if it concerns the health of many. The question of ethics should not come first but the health concerns. Although there have been reports and studies about the long time effects of the use of steroids, published cases of tumors and cancer-related cases, health experts and researchers do not exactly know the consequencesÃ of steroid abuse Ã Ã Even with all the data and reports submitted by researchers and users alike, still this are not conclusive and may be inaccurate. And so the federal government has issued a ban on the use of such.Ã Possession of steroids with the intent of distributing it is considered illegal and punishable by law.Ã Likewise, the use of steroids in sports is considered to be a violation of sports leagues and councils even the ethics of sportsmanship. But even with all the ban and regulation made by the government for the use of steroids especially in professional sports, many athletes still continue to use it despite warnings of its risks.Ã As drug testing is one way of determining whether an athlete is using steroids or not, professional athletes have found a way to go about and escape such drug testing. Just like the Ben Johnson who failed to bring home the gold in the 1988 Summer Olympics when he tested positive for steroids.Ã The catch is, he took 19 drug tests before that before he failed in the Seoul Games which eventually led to the forfeiture of his gold medal.Ã Ultimately, it is really up to the athlete whether he will use steroids to enhance his athletic performance or not notwithstanding the ban and regulation made by the federal government and the question of ethics as well. Reference: Bahrke, M.S., and C.E. Yesalis.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Future of Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport.Ã¢â¬ The Physician and Sports Medicine , 2002, 30(11):1-21. Chuey, Daniel, Introduction to Benefits and RisksÃ Ã www.biodavidson.edu accessed 1/30/06 Chyka, P.A.. Ã¢â¬Å"Androgenic-anabolic steroids.Ã¢â¬ Clinical Toxicology. Philadelphia.WB Saunders, 2001, 595-601. Hobart, Sarah, Ã¢â¬Å"Athlete Use and Abuse of Performance Enhancing Drugs Ã¢â¬Å"www.biodavidson.edu accessed 1/30/06 NCAA. Ã¢â¬Å"NCAA Drug-Testing Results 2002-2003.Ã¢â¬ Accessed 01/30/06 http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/ed_outreach/health-safety/drug_testing/0203results.html 2003. 2004. Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids: Play Safe, Play Fair.Ã¢â¬ American Academy of Pediatrics. http://www.aap.org/family/steroids.htm. 1 Oct. 2004. How to cite Professional Athletes and Illegal Steroid Use, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Consider the following table of costs for the Winsome Widget Factory, which operates in a perfectly competitive market. The market price faced by this firm is $6. 00 per widget. a. Fill in the formula for Average Fixed Cost, Average Variable Cost, Average Total Cost, Marginal Cost, Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Total Profit at the top of the column in the gray section within the table. b. Fill in the missing values for Total Fixed Cost, Total Variable Cost, Average Fixed Cost, Average Variable Cost, Average Total Cost, Marginal Cost, Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Total Profit in the blue sections of the table. Explain. The slope of the total revenue curve is marginal revenue and the slope of the total cost curve is marginal cost. Economic profit (the difference between total revenue and total cost) is maximized where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. This is consistent with the marginal decision rule, which holds that a profit-maximizing firm should increase output until the marginal benefit of an additional unit equals the marginal cost. We will write a custom essay sample on Question and Answer or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The marginal benefit of selling an additional unit is measured as marginal revenue. Finding the output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost is thus an application of our marginal decision rule. To use the marginal decision rule in profit maximization, the firm produces the output at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue. Economic profit per unit is price minus average total cost; total economic profit equals economic profit per unit multiplied by the quantity. If price falls below average total cost, but remains above average variable cost, the firm will continue to operate in the short run, producing the quantity where MR = MC doing so minimizes its losses. If price falls below average variable cost, the firm will shut down in the short run, reducing output to zero. The lowest point on the average variable cost curve is called the shutdown point. So Winsome Widgets Marginal Revenue is at 60 no matter what output is at, so at output level 50 the MR=MC, and as the marginal decision rule applies at this point. f. Is Winsome Widgets in long-run equilibrium? Explain. First consider the definition of long-run equilibrium: All firms are maximizing profits. No firm has incentive to enter or exit, because all firms are earning zero economic profit. Price is such that QSÃ = QD. (Output Supply equals Output In other terms that means in anÃ Increasing Cost (time of an) Industry, an increase in input demand (anticipation of when people get greedy for something) by firms in the industry causes an increase in input prices (firms sale price to break even) and thereby an increase in average production costs. Also, at Long Run equilibrium, profits of all firms in the industry are zero and so no firms are entering or exiting the market. Therefore, Winsome Widgets is not at long run equilibrium because the latest (most current) output is 100. Output levels 40 through 59 would be considered in the state of Long Run equilibrium level. Everything before/after that range isnÃ¢â¬â¢t eligible for that. Task 2: Given a numeric production schedule, you will calculate profit and make decisions about short-run profitability to answer questions relating to your calculations. JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Lock Shop is a perfectly competitive firm, and Jerry is operating at his level of output, which maximizes profit. He can change locks for 20 different customers per day and charges each customer $35 for each lock. His total cost of changing locks is $800 and his fixed cost is $160. Answer the following questions. For each question, show the formula and the calculation as well as the final answer. a. What is JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s marginal cost? Explain how you arrived at that answer. Fixed Cost is $160/20 customers= AFC of 8 If ATC=AFC+AVC, Then AVC=ATC-AFC or 40-8= AVC of 32 TC 800/20 (Q) customers= ATC of 40 shared by the 20 customers he services. Answered because the more customers or output there is sharing of his TC the better off his business is. However if he cannot make positive math alone then he cannot teach and is unadvisable to continue losing money. Firing him and shutting down might be a good idea as well. Arrival is logical, if one man makes -100 for business in one day, then 2 men would be worse, especially being taught skills by someone who cannot make enough alone.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Give a critical account with examples of the strategies available to the translator to deal with culturally specific items, which arise, in translation. The WritePass Journal
Give a critical account with examples of the strategies available to the translator to deal with culturally specific items, which arise, in translation. Introduction Give a critical account with examples of the strategies available to the translator to deal with culturally specific items, which arise, in translation. IntroductionDeterministic machine translationTable 1. Conservation StrategiesÃ Table 2. Substitution Strategies BIBLIOGRAPHYRelated Introduction It is commonly agreed that the act of translation involves the conveyance of a message from one language to another, however, as Komissarov states,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Translation from language to language is ipso facto translation from culture to cultureÃ¢â¬ (1991, p.12). Hatim and MasonÃ¢â¬â¢s description of translation agrees with this opinion stating that the message must cross Ã¢â¬Å"cultural and linguistic boundariesÃ¢â¬ (1997, p. 1) in order to be clearly understood, while George Bernard ShawÃ¢â¬â¢s much referenced comment that Ã¢â¬Å"England and America are two countries separated by the same languageÃ¢â¬ gives us a clear indication that, when it comes to translation, knowledge of language is not enough and an appreciation of culture and customs is paramount. Deterministic machine translation AÃ notorious for missing the point and the errors that are thrown up obvious, and often comical, in the target language such as the original Chinese translation of the Kentucky Fried Chicken slogan finger-lickin good which read eat your fingers off (Wolter, 2010). Culler states, Ã¢â¬Å"If language were simply a nomenclature for a set of universal concepts, it would be easy to translate from one language to another. One would simply replace the French name for a concept with the English name.Ã¢â¬ (cited in Baker, 1992, p. 10). This circumstance rarely presents itself and lack of equivalence, especially in the case of culture-specific words and concepts, is one of the main challenges faced by the translator. It is particularly evident within the realm of literary translation where the source-language culture plays a significant role and the emphasis is on recreating a piece of writing that is Ã¢â¬Å"true to the original, as well as being equally enchantingÃ¢â¬ (G. Paul, 2009, p .1). The translator must therefore not only have a good knowledge of both languages and cultures but a set of tried and trusted strategies to employ to overcome difficulties in transferring cultures within literary translation. This essay will concentrate on literary translation, with an emphasis on translation strategies available to deal with areas of cultural relevance within childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. It will focus on the novel Le Petit Nicolas, (Goscinny SempÃ ©, 2007) and its translation Nicholas (Goscinny SempÃ ©, 2005); a book full of culture-specific phrases and concepts, which will offer an insight into the challenge of translating from Ã¢â¬Å"culture to cultureÃ¢â¬ (Komissarov, 1991, p.12). To review the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s processing of culturally specific items and develop a schema of success and failure that meaning can be drawn from, Javier Franco AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s model of strategies available to the translator when translating items of cultural relevance will be used (1996, pp 52-77). The first step in this assessment must be to define what constitutes an item of cultural significance. As Aixel points out, it is easy to identify more common culturally specific words, such as personal and place names, however, an overall explanation of cultural specificity is in itself rather challenging as Ã¢â¬Å"everything is culturally produced, beginning with language itself.Ã¢â¬ (1996, p. 57). For instance, Aixel gives the example of translating the word Ã¢â¬Å"lambÃ¢â¬ from the Bible for the Eskimo people; while this would not pose a problem to a source culture (SC) where this animal is known as having connotations of being helpless and sacrificial, it would for a SC where the animal is either completely unknown or unknown in that capacity (ibid, pp. 57-58). Aixel terms an area of cultural significance as a Ã¢â¬Ëculture-specific itemÃ¢â¬â¢ (CSI), which he defines as: Ã¢â¬Å"Those textually actualized items whose functions and connotations in a source text involve a translation problem in their transference to a target text, whenever this problem is a product of the non-existence of the referred items or of its different intertextual status in the cultural system of the readers of the target text.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, p. 58) This essay will use AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of Ã¢â¬ËCSIsÃ¢â¬â¢, which are anything linked to the SC that either does not exist in the target culture (TC) or carries a different meaning in that culture, when identifying areas of cultural relevance within Le Petit Nicolas. While this definition makes it possible to identify CSIs within a given text, it is worth noting that a CSI, like language and culture themselves, is liable to change; Aixel states that Ã¢â¬Å"objects, habits or values once restricted to one community come to be shared by othersÃ¢â¬ (1996, p. 58). It is possible to extrapolate AixelaÃ¢â¬â¢s theory further than this as the evolution of cultural significance can also affect a single language, for example, Ã¢â¬Ëcar crashÃ¢â¬â¢ previously just another way of saying Ã¢â¬Ëmotoring accidentÃ¢â¬â¢, was recently admitted into the Oxford English Dictionary carrying entirely different cultural connotations of celebrity misadventure (Alleyne, 2008 I pinched th is from the 2011 inclusions..) . It is therefore important to remain flexible in identifying and handling CSIs. With a definition of a CSI it is possible to concentrate on the strategies available for translating them. Aixel splits his strategies for dealing with CSIs into two main categories Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ (see Tab. 1 2) (1996, pp. 61- 65). The strategies within the category ofÃ Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ focus on preserving the CSI in the TT in some way and therefore support SchleiermacherÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of Ã¢â¬ËForeignizingÃ¢â¬â¢ whereby the translator emphasises cultural differences from the ST in the TT (in Venuti, 2008, p. 20); conversely, Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies aim at replacing the source-culture item with one from the TC and therefore correspond to the contrasting view of Ã¢â¬ËDomesticatingÃ¢â¬â¢ the TT (Ibid, p. 18), and NidaÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of Ã¢â¬ËDynamic EquivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ which places the focus on the target reader and thus the TC over that of the SC (2000, p.156). The general consensus at the p resent time, as put forward by Gill Paul, is that a good literary translation must Ã¢â¬Å"reflect cultural differences, while drawing parallels that make it accessible [Ã¢â¬ ¦]. It should be read by readers in its new language with the same enthusiasm and understanding as it was in the old.Ã¢â¬ (2009, p. 1). Both Ã¢â¬ËForeignizationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDynamic EquivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ place unnecessary limitations on the literary translator and hence the TT and, if followed to the letter, would not produce PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëgood literary translationÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, in incorporating an element of each theory, AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies (listed below) strike the right balance: Table 1. Conservation StrategiesÃ Repetition Straight transference of CSI from ST to TT. Orthographic Adaptation Transliteration or transcription of CSI from ST to TT. Linguistic (non-cultural) translation Using a target language version, which is based on pre-existing translation and can still be recognised as belonging to the source culture. Extratextual gloss One of above strategies plus addition of information in form of footnote, brackets etc. Intratextual gloss One of above strategies plus addition of information in main body of text. Table 2. Substitution Strategies Synonymy Use of a synonym to avoid repetition of a CSI on stylistic grounds. Limited universalization Use of another CSI from source culture to replace the more incomprehensible one in ST. Absolute universalization Replacing CSI with a neutral reference, thus removing any exoticism. Naturalization Replacing CSI with a CSI from the target culture. Deletion Removing all elements of CSI for ideological or stylistic reasons. Autonomous Creation Adding a cultural reference to TT that is not present in ST. The data in Tables 1 2 are from Translation, Power, Subversion (pp.61-70) by R. lvarez and M. C.-. Vidal, eds.(1996), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Viewing the ST (Goscinny, 2007) with the strategies outlined above we can start to identify thematic CSIs that cause issues for the target TT and would likely cause unnecessary confusion. Translation of the French childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s names was a particular challenge; Aixel generally advocates Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies of Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËOrthographic adaptationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab.1) for dealing with names (1996, pp. 61-62), however with French names, there is the obvious issue of pronunciation such as with the Eudes and Joachim. While pronunciation is not a necessity when reading, it does aid character recollection and thus the ability to emphasise with a character. In addition to pronunciation, the names also carry underlying connotations and stereotypes such as popularity, whether they are modern or old-fashioned and what type of person the name evokes in the imagination that would not transfer to the TT. While elements of these issues may be overcome by the fact that in the ST there already appears to be what Aixel terms Ã¢â¬ËIntratextual glossÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 1) in the form of descriptions of the characters, the issues concerning pronunciation highlight a weakness in the strategies of Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËOrthographic adaptationÃ¢â¬â¢. This weakness calls for the translator to be sensitive to external factors affecting translation decisions. Aixel terms these factors as Ã¢â¬ËSupratextualÃ¢â¬â¢ variables, which include the genre of the ST, the translation brief and the intended audience (1996, pp. 65-66). The translation by Anthea Bell of Le Petit Nicolas was undertaken in 1978, when translation norms looked to adhere to viewpoints such as NidaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDynamic EquivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ while attempting to Ã¢â¬Å"produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the originalÃ¢â¬ (Newmark, 1981, p39). The reference to th e Ã¢â¬ËreadersÃ¢â¬â¢ above is an important one; In Principles of Correspondence, Nida states that the translator needs to understand the audience in terms of their Ã¢â¬Ëdecoding abilityÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëpotential interestÃ¢â¬â¢ (in Venuti, 2000, p. 155). Le Petit Nicolas is a classic piece of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature that is enjoyed by young children and adults alike. While this book is enjoyed by an adult audience, the main readership would fall into NidaÃ¢â¬â¢s category ofÃ Ã¢â¬Å"The capacity of children, whose vocabulary and cultural experiences are limited;Ã¢â¬ (in Venuti, 2000, p. 155); this indicates that AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies of Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËOrthographic adaptationÃ¢â¬â¢ for dealing with names, would not be suitable here. In order to overcome this, the Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy Ã¢â¬ËLimited universalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 2) could be employed, which would have made it possible to keep French names without losing any understanding on behalf of the target readers; for example changing Ã¢â¬ËEudesÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËEdouardÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËJoachimÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËJÃ ©rÃ ´meÃ¢â¬â¢. This strategy would be more in tune with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s translation norms and would fulfil PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal of a good translation that Ã¢â¬Å"allows a reader to experience first hand a different world Ã¢â¬â hearing the sounds, tasting local fare, seeing the sightsÃ¢â¬ (2009, p.55). Translator Anthea Bell uses English names in place of the French ST versions and this approach corresponds to substitution strategy of Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 2). The choice to remove all elements of French from the names is a bold one; Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is rarely used in literature, however it was once a common strategy for translating childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s stories (Aixel, 1996, p. 63) and this, along with the above mentioned supratextual factors, may have influenced this decision. While Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ proved inappropriate in translating Christian names, it would be possible to preserve elements of the SC in the TT by using this strategy for other CSIs. There are a number of references in the ST to food items specific to French culture; these include Ã¢â¬Ëpain au chocolatÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËCamembertÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËRoquefortÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËfritesÃ¢â¬â¢. Aixel states that Ã¢â¬Å"in the Western World there is a clear trend [Ã¢â¬ ¦] towards maximum acceptability [Ã¢â¬ ¦] towards Ã¢â¬Ëreading as an originalÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Ibid, p. 54); this sentiment promotes the use of Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies such as Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëpain au chocolatÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬Ëpain au chocolatÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËLinguistic (non-cultural) translationÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËfritesÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËFrench friesÃ¢â¬â¢. These strategies definitely have their appeal in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society where globalisation has meant that food items such as Ã¢â¬Ëpain au chocolatÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËFrench friesÃ¢â¬â¢ are readily available in our shops; however, these termsÃ may not have been suitable in the late seventi es when the ST was translated Ã¢â¬â again this indicates that words change their meaning and distribution over time and to quote Aixel once more, Ã¢â¬Å"objects, habits or values once restricted to one community come to be shared by othersÃ¢â¬ (1996, p. 58). Lack of availability and hence knowledge about French food may be the reason behind BellÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions in her era, which once again correspond to AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies of Ã¢â¬ËLimited universalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ for Ã¢â¬Ëpain au chocolatÃ¢â¬â¢ where it was translated as Ã¢â¬Ëchocolate croissantÃ¢â¬â¢ (something entirely different in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s supermarkets) and Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ for Ã¢â¬ËfritesÃ¢â¬â¢ which became Ã¢â¬ËchipsÃ¢â¬â¢. While both Ã¢â¬ËLimited universalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ are perfectly valid strategies for translating CSIs such as food items, their overuse will eventually lead to Ã¢â¬ËDomesticationÃ¢â¬â¢ of th e ST (Schleiermacher in Venuti, 2008, p.18), which is not in line with PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s description of Ã¢â¬Ëa good literary translationÃ¢â¬â¢ (2009, p. 55). Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ of Camembert and Roquefort, which appear in the ST as part of an amusing tale between two of the characters who are trying to recall the fable The Fox and the Crow (ST, pp. 45-48, TT, p. 34), would clearly correspond with PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal of allowing the target reader to personally experience the ST world (2009, p.55), however, it may lead to a lack of understanding due to the nature of the target audience who probably do not have knowledge of such delicacies as Camembert or Roquefort. In the fable by Aesop the crow has a piece of cheese in its beak (Crow and the Fox, n.d.) and in the ST the two boys are arguing over whether this piece of cheese is Camembert or Roquefort: Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] dÃ¢â¬â¢un corbeau qui tenait dans son bec un roquefort.[Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã Ã «Ã Mais non, a dit Alceste, cÃ¢â¬â¢Ã ©tait un camembert.Ã Ã » (ST, pp. 45-48) [of a crow who had in his beak a roquefort [Ã¢â¬ ¦] Ã¢â¬Å"but no, said Alceste, it was a camembertÃ¢â¬ ] Ã¢â¬ËLimited universalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ choosing a more general French cheese, or Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ using an English cheese, could solve this problem, however, the next remark made by one of the boys highlights the need for an understanding of the CSIÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment in the ST and how this affects the choice of strategies (1996, p. 69-70): Ã «Ã Pas du tout, a dit Rufus, le camembert, le corbeau il nÃ¢â¬â¢aurait pas pu le tenir dans son bec, Ã §a coule et puis Ã §a sent pas bonÃ !Ã Ã » (ST, p. 48) [Not at all, said Rufus, the camembert, the crow would not be able to hold it in his beak, it runs, and then it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t smell good!] Bell opts for Ã¢â¬ËRepetitionÃ¢â¬â¢ in the TT which is one of the only times that she uses a Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy (1996, pp. 61-62) and for this reason the CSIs feel out of place within a TT that has, for the most part, been domesticated. This observation underlines the need for an equal balance in the use of Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies when translating CSIs. The possible use of the Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies Ã¢â¬ËExtratextualÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËIntratextual glossÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 1) emerged when translating the CSI in the form the job title Ã¢â¬Ële surveillantÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËLe surveillantÃ¢â¬â¢ is a term Ã¢â¬Ërestricted to the source cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Aixel, 1996, p. 56) and, at the time of Le Petit Nicolas, it was an adult in charge of study and discipline (nowadays a Ã¢â¬ËsurveillantÃ¢â¬â¢ is more likely to be a fellow student and not in charge of discipline equivalent to a monitor or prefect in a British school). As there is no linguistic equivalent in the target language this poses a problem, which could be overcome for the translator wanting to keep an element of the SC in the TT by using such Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies: Ã¢â¬Å"monsieur Dubon, le surveillant, nous a conduit en classeÃ¢â¬ (ST, p. 23) Ã¢â¬Å"Mr Dubon, the surveillant (the person in charge of study and discipline in a school), led us into the classroomÃ¢â¬ (My translation using Ã¢â¬ËExtratextual glossÃ¢â¬â¢) Ã¢â¬Å"Mr Dubon, who is the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillant in charge of discipline, led us into the classroomÃ¢â¬ (My translation using Ã¢â¬ËIntratextual glossÃ¢â¬â¢) These approaches conserve the CSI in the TT; however, they interrupt the flow of the text and are therefore not ideal options for literary translation. This draws attention to a need for the translator to decide between which is more important: the fluidity of the TT or the preservation of the cultural elements present in the ST. Analysis of the TT has shown that, as with the Christian names, Bell opts to maintain the flow of the TT and chooses Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ here using Ã¢â¬Ëone of the other teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ (TT, p. 17). While this does not interrupt the flow of the text, it is not correct and does lead to some confusion as to why their class teacher allows Ã¢â¬Ëone of the other teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ to constantly interrupt lessons and discipline her pupils. The nickname for the Ã¢â¬ËsurveillantÃ¢â¬â¢ in Le Petit Nicolas is Ã¢â¬ËLe BouillonÃ¢â¬â¢ a type of broth usually made with meat and vegetables like a stew. It may be possible to use the Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy of Ã¢â¬ËLinguistic (non-cultural) translationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 1) for Ã¢â¬ËLe BouillonÃ¢â¬â¢ renaming it Ã¢â¬ËstewÃ¢â¬â¢, however, what Aixel terms as Ã¢â¬ËintratextualÃ¢â¬â¢ factors relating to this CSI, namely how the CSI is treated within the ST itself such as its cultural consideration, its significance and replication will mould how it is dealt with in translation (1996, pp 69-70); the reason why the boys use this nickname would make a CSI translated using Ã¢â¬ËLinguistic (non-cultural) translationÃ¢â¬â¢ confusing for the target reader: Ã¢â¬Å"On lÃ¢â¬â¢appelle comme Ã §a, parce quÃ¢â¬â¢il dit tout le temps : Ã «Ã Regardez-moi dans les yeuxÃ Ã », et dans le bouillon il y a des yeux.Ã¢â¬ (ST, p. 23) [one calls him like that because he says all the time Ã¢â¬Ëlook me in the eyesÃ¢â¬â¢, and in stew there are eyes] This reason is quite clearly culturally specific; it refers to the fat in the broth that gathers in circles on top of the water, which in French culture are seen as Ã¢â¬ËeyesÃ¢â¬â¢. As this is not something that the target reader would instantly think of, it is not possible to use any of AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies here without having to include a lengthy and disruptive explanation within the TT. In line with BellÃ¢â¬â¢s other translation decisions for names, the terms have been Ã¢â¬ËnaturalisedÃ¢â¬â¢ and the CSI has become Ã¢â¬ËOld SpudsÃ¢â¬â¢, which allows the reason to remain the same as in the ST albeit with the reader enjoying a differing mental image. While Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ can be seen to have gone against the ideal of a Ã¢â¬Ëgood literary translationÃ¢â¬â¢ in domesticating the CSI, it is sometimes a necessity in order to preserve as much of the content of ST as possible. Another challenging CSI is a confluence of two of the above themes in Le Petit Nicolas, namely food and culture. Ã¢â¬Ële goÃ »terÃ¢â¬â¢ (an after-school snack usually given at 4pm) is a ritualistic snack that forms part of the French way of life and should not be confused with the evening meal, which is served much later than in the UK. For this reason one could use a Ã¢â¬ËConservationÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy such as Ã¢â¬ËIntratextual glossÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 1) however, as previously discussed this strategy impedes the flow of literary texts and therefore the Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy Ã¢â¬ËAbsolute universalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 2) may be a better option: Ã «Ã jÃ¢â¬â¢ai pas envie dÃ¢â¬â¢Ã ªtre en retard pour le goÃ »terÃ ! (ST, p. 37) Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be late for our after-school snack which is usually given at 4pm!Ã¢â¬ (my translation using Ã¢â¬Ëintratextual glossÃ¢â¬â¢) Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be late for snack-time!Ã¢â¬ (my translation using Ã¢â¬ËAbsolute universalizationÃ¢â¬â¢) Interestingly, Bell has again employed the Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy Ã¢â¬ËNaturalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ to translate this CSI (1996, p. 63): Ã¢â¬ËI donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be late for tea!Ã¢â¬â¢ (TT, p.27) While this option may have been suitable when the translation was published, it would now lead the target reader to believe that the children are having their evening meal. The Ã¢â¬ËSubstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy of Ã¢â¬ËDeletionÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tab. 2) is preserved for CSIs that are considered Ã¢â¬Å"unacceptable on ideological or stylistic groundsÃ¢â¬ (Aixel, p. 64). Aixel states that the Ã¢â¬Å"nature of the CSIÃ¢â¬ in terms of any pre-established translations it may have, its transparency, its ideological status and what culture it refers to all influence how it is treated in translation (1996, pp. 68-69); an area in the ST that this would be considered is within the story Djodjo regarding the English student (ST, pp 59-65). On being introduced to the English student George the French boys notice his teeth and comments on them: Ã¢â¬Å"Il a souri et nous avons vu quÃ¢â¬â¢il a des tas de dents terribles. Ã «Ã Le veinard, a dit Alceste, [Ã¢â¬ ¦] avec des dents comme Ã §a, il doit mordre des drÃ ´les de morceauxÃ !Ã Ã » (ST, p. 59) [he smiled and we saw that he had loads of awful/huge teeth. Ã¢â¬Å"Lucky thing, said Alceste [Ã¢â¬ ¦] with teeth like that must be able to eat lots of things!Ã¢â¬ ] This stereotypical image of poor English dental care is specific to the SC and may offend the target audience if it were to be kept in the TT. If KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion in her work on the ideological implications of translation, that the translator Ã¢â¬Å"she should be aware of the pitfalls of stereotypical images, and attempt to avoid themÃ¢â¬ is to be adhered to then Ã¢â¬ËDeletionÃ¢â¬â¢ would be an appropriate strategy here (1998, p. 63). However, this strategy involves major changes to the ST and places the importance of target-audience views above that of the message of the ST and should only be used if the translator sees no other working solution. Analysis of the TT shows that Bell also uses Ã¢â¬ËDeletionÃ¢â¬â¢ for this CSI and goes further in changing the CSI by using Ã¢â¬ËAutonomous creationÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â changing the name of the student to a Dutch name, and thus his nationality from English to Dutch (1996, p.64). Le Petit Nicolas gives us a wide range of CSIÃ¢â¬â¢s in action and permits the evaluation of AixelÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies in parochial areas such as naming conventions, cuisine and social structures and stereotypes. All of these challenge and inevitably force a course of action and stylistic choice from the translator. The strategies employed in Le Petit Nicolas have not always produced the best fit or proved the most enduring, e.g. Ã¢â¬Ëchocolate croissantsÃ¢â¬â¢, but they clearly show that translation is an art not a science as indeed it should be in the realm of literary translation.Ã Ã ; I It is often factors outside of the ST that will have a bearing of the efficacy of each strategy.Ã The analysis of the items of cultural significance and the strategies used to translate them in the essay epitomises the quintessential tensions of translation. While it can be helpful that translation theorists such as Aixel create models for translation that should be followed a priori, it is often not the case that these models can be taken off the shelf and applied to all translations. Sometimes to coin a business expression the real test comes when Ã¢â¬Ëthe rubber hits the roadÃ¢â¬â¢ and the need for pragmatic responses to CSIs gives Bell and all involved in translation a raison dÃ¢â¬â¢Ã ªtre and a place that currently cannot be filled easily by mechanistic rule sets. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alleyne, R. (2008) Custard Cream is New Entry in Concise Oxford English Dictionary. The Telegraph. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from website telegraph.co.uk/news/2235642/Custard-Cream-is-new-entry-in-Concise-Oxford-English-Dictionary.html AixÃ ¨la, J.F. (1996). Culture-specific Items in Translation. In R. lvarez and M. C.-. Vidal, eds. Translation, Power, Subversion (pp.52-78). [Electronic version]. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Baker, M. (1992). In other words: A coursebook on translation. London: Routledge Hatim, B. Mason, I. (1997) The Translator as Communicator. [Electronic version]. London: Routledge Kelly, D. (1998) Ideological implications of translation decisions: positive self- and negative other presentation. [Electronic version]. Quaderns. Revista de traducciÃ ³ 1, 57-63 Komissarov, V.N. (1991). Language and Culture in Translation: Competitors or Collaborators? [Electronic version]. TTR : traduction, terminologie, rÃ ©daction, 4, (1) p. 33-47. Retrieved from http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/037080ar Newmark, P. (1981). Approaches to Translation. [Electronic version]. Oxford: Pergamon Nida, E. (1964). Principles of Correspondence. In L.Venuti, ed. The Translation Studies Reader (pp. 153-167). London: Routledge Paul, G. (2009). Translation in Practice: a symposium. Champaign and London: Dalkey Archive Press Venuti, L. (2008) The TranslatorÃ¢â¬â¢s Invisibility: A History of Translation. (2nd edition). [Electronic version]. London: Routledge Venuti, L. (ed.) (2000) The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge Wolter, L. (2010, March 9) Doing Business in the here and now. Las Cruces Sun-News (New Mexico). Retrieved May 15, 2011 from lexisnexis.com/uk/nexis/ surveillant, e. (2007). In Collins French Dictionary Plus. Retrieved from credoreference.com/entry/collinsfrench/surveillant_e Le Bouillon, http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=1033979 The Crow and the Fox aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi?jdlfi2msi3m.jpg
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
George Washington's First Inauguration The inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States on April 30, 1789, was a public event witnessed by a cheering crowd. The celebration in the streets of New York City was also a very serious event, however, as it marked theÃ beginning of a new era. After struggling with the Articles of Confederation in the years following the Revolutionary War, there had been a need for a more effective federal government and a convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1781 created the Constitution, which established the office of president. George Washington had been selected as president of the Constitutional Convention and, given his great stature as a national hero, it seemed obvious he would be elected as the first President of the United States. WashingtonÃ easily won the first presidential election in late 1788 and when he took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall in lower Manhattan months later, it must have seemed to the citizens of the young nation that a stable government was finally coming together. As Washington stepped out onto the balcony of the building, many precedents would be created. The basic format of that first inauguration more than 225 years ago is essentially repeated every four years. Preparations for the Inauguration After delays in counting votes and certifying the election, Washington was officially informed that he had been elected on April 14, 1789. The secretary of the Congress traveled to Mount Vernon to deliver the news. In an oddly formal meeting, Charles Thomson, the official messenger, and Washington read prepared statements to each other. Washington agreed to serve. He left for New York City two days later. The trip was long, and even with Washingtons carriage (a luxury vehicle of the time) it was arduous. Washington was met by crowds at every stop. On many nights he felt obligated to attend dinners hosted by local dignitaries, during which he was toasted effusively. After a large crowd welcomed him in Philadelphia, Washington was hoping to arrive in New York City (the location of the inauguration as D.C. had not yet become the nations capital) quietly. He didnt get his wish. On April 23, 1789, Washington was ferried to Manhattan from Elizabeth, New Jersey, aboard an elaborately decorated barge.Ã His arrival in New York was a massive public event. A letter describing the festivities that appeared in newspapers mentioned a cannon salute was fired as Washingtons barge passed the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan. A parade formed consisting of a cavalry troop formed when he landed and also included an artillery unit, military officers, and the Presidents Guard composed of Grenadiers of the First Regiment. Washington, along with city and state officials and followed by hundreds of citizens, marched to the mansion rented as the Presidents House. The letter from New York published in the Boston Independent Chronicle on April 30, 1789, mentioned that flags and banners were displayed from buildings, and bells were rung. Women waved from windows. During the following week, Washington was kept busy holding meetings and organizing his new household on Cherry Street. His wife, Martha Washington, arrived in New York a few days later accompanied by servants which included enslaved people brought from Washingtons Virginia estate at Mount Vernon. The Inauguration The date for the inauguration was set for April 30, 1789, a Thursday morning. At noon a procession began from the Presidents House at Cherry Street. Led by military units, Washington and other dignitaries walked through several streets to Federal Hall. Keenly aware that everything he did that day would be seen as significant, Washington chose his wardrobe carefully. Though he was mostly known as a soldier, Washington wanted to emphasize that the presidency was a civilian position, and he did not wear a uniform. He also knew his clothes for the big event had to be American, not European. He wore a suit made of American fabric, a brown broadcloth made in Connecticut that was described as resembling velvet. In a small nod to his military background, he wore a dress sword. After reaching the building on the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets, Washington passed through a formation of soldiers and entered the building. According to an account in a newspaper called The Gazette of the United States and published on May 2, 1789, he was then introduced to both houses of Congress. That was, of course, a formality, as Washington would have already known many of the members of the House and Senate. Stepping out onto the gallery, a large open porch on the front of the building, Washington was administered theÃ oath of office by the Chancellor of the State of New York, Robert Livingston. The tradition of presidents being sworn in by the Chief Justice of the United States was still years in the future for a very good reason: the Supreme Court would not exist until September 1789, when John Jay became the first Chief Justice. A report published in a newspaper (The New York Weekly Museum) on May 2, 1789, described the scene which followed the administration of the oath of office: The Chancellor then proclaimed him THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, which was followed by the instant discharge of 13 cannon, and loud repeated shouts; THE PRESIDENT bowing to the people, the air again rang with their acclamations. He then retired with the two Houses [of Congress] to the Senate Chamber... In the Senate chamber, Washington delivered the first inaugural address. He had originally written a very long speech which his friend and adviser, future president James Madison, suggested he replace. Madison drafted a much shorter speech in which Washington expressed typical modesty. Following his speech, Washington along with new vice president John Adams and members of Congress walked to St. Pauls Chapel on Broadway. After a church service, Washington returned to his residence. The citizens of New York, however, continued celebrating. Newspapers reported that illuminations, which would have been elaborate slide shows, were projected on buildings that night. A report in the Gazette of the United StatesÃ noted that illuminations at the homes of the French and Spanish ambassadors were particularly elaborate. The report in The Gazette of the United States described the end of the great day: The evening was fine- the company innumerable- every one appeared to enjoy the scene, and no accident cast the smallest cloud upon the retrospect.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Risk Management Systems - Essay Example In practice, the process can be very difficult and balancing between risks with a high probability of occurrence but lower loss versus a risk with high loss but lower probability of occurrence can often be mishandled. Intangible risk management identifies a new type of risk - a risk that has a 100% probability of occurring but is ignored by the organization due to a lack of identification ability. For example, when deficient knowledge is applied to a situation, a knowledge risk materializes. Relationship risk appears when ineffective collaboration occurs. Process-engagement risk may be an issue when ineffective operational procedures are applied. These risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost effectiveness, profitability, service, quality, reputation, brand value, and earnings quality. Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity. Risk management also faces difficulties in allocating resources. This is the idea of opportunity cost. Resources spent on risk management could have been spent on more profitable activities. Again, ideal risk management minimizes spending while maximizing the reduction of the negative effects of risks. In Norfolk Sentara, they have developed different programs to lessen the risks associated with diseases and they have implemented these programs efficiently that they have received recognition for their patient safety assurance. Norfolk Sentara addressed the needs and safety of their patients as if they were their own relatives. They work hard to provide the best patient care possible and also to provide treatment plans that will help alleviate the patients' pain and sickness.Ã Ã